Carbon dating gcse aqa

Due to their much larger mass alpha particles are deflected far less than beta.

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Gamma rays are not deflected because they are not charged. Magnetic south pole placed behind the rays. The atom becomes a positive ion. Alpha particles cause intense ionisation due to their large mass double positive charge. Beta particles cause moderate ionisation. Gamma rays only cause weak ionisation because they are uncharged.

Lithium atom uncharged Lithium ion positively charged. This can lead to genetic mutation or cancerous growth.

Alpha particles cause the greatest amount of ionisation and are therefore potentially the most dangerous type of radiation. They are, however, the easiest to shield against. To achieve this radioactive sources should: Radiation can knock electrons from atoms. This ionisation damages the genes in a cell which can be passed on if the cell generates more cells.

Radioactive decay - AQA

The time it takes for the number of nuclei of the isotope in a sample to halve. OR The time it takes for the count rate from a sample containing the isotope to fall to half its initial level. At 2 pm there are nuclei of substance X. TimeNuclei of X Nuclei of Y 2 pm 4 pm 6 pm 8 pm 10 pm midnight 0 When will the nuclei of substance X fallen to 50? At 9 am there are nuclei of substance P. TimeNuclei of X Nuclei of Y 9 am 9: If at 8 am it has a count rate of per second, what will be its count rate at 2 pm? A more accurate value can be obtained be repeating this method for a other initial nuclei numbers and then taking an average.

The half-life is approximately 20 seconds half-life. Draw a graph of count rate against time and use it to determine the half-life of the substance. Time hours Counts per minute The half-life should be about: If the thickness increases then the detector reading falls.

Radiocarbon dating

This will cause the computer to bring the rollers closer together and so decrease the foil thickness. Beta radiation must be used. A long half-life source must be used. The gamma camera shown opposite can show where a patient has absorbed a tiny amount of radioactive substance. Doctors can tell from the image obtained how well particular organs are functioning.

Gamma radiation must be used. A short half-life source must be used.

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The radioactive substance must not be toxic nor decay into a substance that is toxic or radioactive. In a fire, smoke prevents the radiation causing ionisation. The drop in electric current caused sets off the alarm. Alpha radiation must be used. This has a half-life of about years. When the material dies it no longer absorbs any more carbon. Therefore the amount of radioactive carbon decreases. The age of the once living material can be estimated by comparing its residual radioactive carbon content with that of living material.

Radiocarbon dating has estimated that the age of the Turin Shroud is only about one thousand years — but this is disputed. Each uranium atom eventually decays into a lead atom. The age of a rock sample can be worked out by comparing the amount of lead to that of uranium. Uranium dating is one of the methods used to estimate he age of the Earth. Explain what is meant by a carbon and b uranium dating. Describe how a smoke alarm works. Gamma radiation would pass through it without any absorption. The alpha particles are very ionising and so cause a lot of damage to living cells.

If they get into the lungs they will do a lot of harm. Animals take in carbon when they eat food because food contains carbon.

Carbon dating gcse aqa

All living things therefore have carbon - 14 in them at the same amount which is present in the environment. This amount is small. Only one in billion carbon atoms are the isotope carbon - The others are not radioactive. When a living thing dies , it stops taking in carbon from its environment. The amount of carbon - 14 in it will start to decrease as the carbon - 14 slowly decays.

GCSE Science Physics (9-1) Half Life

The further back in time that something died , the less carbon - 14 will be present in it today. The half - life of carbon - 14 is 5 , years. Measuring the amount of carbon - 14 in a sample today can tell you how long ago the thing died and therefore the age of the sample. Carbon dating is very useful but also has its limitations.

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